INDIAN CAPITAL MARKETS
TYPES OF ISSUES
The primary issue market is the fundamental of the capital markets that acts with the issuance of new securities. Companies, governments or public sector institutions can access funding through the sale of a new stock. A primary issue of securities is build to promoters when a company is set up and equity shares are issued to them. If bonds are issued to institutions that lend to a company, that is also a primary issue, but issued privately only to a select set of investors.
Primary market also known as New Issue Market as it deals with new securities which are not previously available and are offered for the investment to the public for the first time. The primary market enjoys neither any corporeal form nor any administrative organizational set-up and is not subject to any centralized control and administration for the execution of its business.
In the primary market, securities are issued on an exchange basis. The investment banks play an important role in this market there by setting initial price range for a particular share and then supervise the selling of that share. Investors can get the news of upcoming shares only in the primary market. . If an issuer does not choose any specific group of investors, but offers securities inviting anyone implicated in buying the securities of the business, public issue is raised.
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METHODS OF ISSUES IN THE PRIMARY MARKET
A) Public Issue: Securities are issued to the members of the public eligible to invest can participate in the issue. This is primarily retail issue of securities.
B) Private Placement: The sale of securities to a relatively small number of select investors as a way of raising capital. This is a wholesale issue of securities to institutional investors by an unlisted company.
C) Preferential issue: A private placement of securities by a listed company. Securities are issued to an identified set of investors which may include promoters, strategic investors, employees and groups.
D) Qualified Institutional Placement (QIP): A private placement of securities by a listed company to a set of institutional investors termed as qualified institutional buyer. Qualified institutional buyers include institutions such as mutual funds.
E) Rights and Bonus issues: Securities are issued to existing investors on a cut of date by offering them to buy more securities at a pre-determined price (rights) or get an allotment of additional free shares (bonus).